Roman emperors

This list attempts to name all those individuals who claimed the title of Augustus during the period of the Roman Empire in the West. It ignores the Byzantine Emperors who reigned in the Eastern Mediterranean after the fall of the Western Empire in the late fifth century AD.

Names are given as fully as possible, with the praenomen abbreviated according to Latin convention; the names by which the individuals are best known are italicised, so that the emperor known best as Tiberius I appears as Ti Claudius Nero. If an emperor is known best by a nickname (for instance, Caracalla), this is given is square brackets. Although the Romans did not use regnal numbers, they have been given here following modern convention. The ordering of names follows the date of accession or usurpation as consistently as possible: with some of the more obscure usurpers, exact dates are impossible to ascertain, and in some cases their position in the list is only approximate.

Name Accession Death
Iulius Caesar (Dictator) -49 15 March -44
C Iulius Caesar Octauianus Augustus 16 January -27 19 August 14
Ti Claudius Nero 19 August 14 16 March 37
C Claudius Nero Germanicus [Caligula] 16 March 37 24 January 41
Ti Claudius Nero Drusus I 25 January 41 13 October 54
L Domitius Claudius Nero 13 October 54 9 June 68
L Clodius Macer (North Africa) April 68 October 68
Ser Sulpicius Galba 9 June 68 15 January 69
C Nymphidius Sabinus (Rome) 20? June 68 autumn 68
A Vitellius 2 January 69 20 December 69
M Saluius Otho 15 January 69 17 April 69
T Flauius Vespasianus 1 July 69 24 June 79
T Flauius Vespasianus 24 June 79 13 September 81
T Flauius Domitianus I 13 September 81 18 September 96
L Antoninus Saturninus 89 89
M Cocceius Nerua 18 September 96 25 January 98
M Vlpius Traianus 25 January 98 8 August 117
P Aelius Hadrianus 8 August 117 10 July 138
T Aurelius Antoninus [Pius] 10 July 138 7 March 161
M Annius Aurelius Verus 7 March 161 17 March 180
L Aelius Aurelius Verus Commodus 7 March 161 January 169
Auidius Cassius 175 175
M Aurelius Antoninus Commodus 1 January 177 31 December 192
Maternus 186 186
P Heluius Pertinax 1 January 193 28 March 193
M Didius Seuerus Iulianus 28 March 193 2 June 193
C Pescennius Niger Iustus (Syria) April 193 autumn 194
L Septimius Seuerus I Pertinax 13 April 193 4 September 211
D Clodius Septimius Albinus (Gaul & Britain) December 195 19 February197
M Aurelius Antoninus [Caracalla] January 198 8 April 217
P Septimius Geta 209 1 February212
M Opellius Macrinus 11 April 217 8 June 218
M Opellius Antoninus Diadumenianus 218 8 June 218
M Aurelius Antoninus [Elagabalus (Heliogabalus)] 16 May 218 6 March 222
Seleucus 218222 218222
Gellius Maximus 218222 218222
s Verus 218222 218222
M Aurelius Seuerus Alexander 6 March 222 mid March 235
Taurinus 222235 222235
L Seius Sallustius 225 227
C Iulius Verus Maximinus I Thrax mid March 235 24 June 238
Quartinus 235 235
M Antoninus Gordianus I Sempronianus Romanus 22 March 238 12 April 238
M Antoninus Gordianus II Sempronianus Romanus 22 March 238 12 April 238
M Clodius Pupienus Maximus 22 April 238 29 July 238
D Caelius Caluinus Balbinus 22 April 238 29 July 238
M Antonius Gordianus III 29 July 238 25 February 244
M Iulius Verus Philippus I Arabs 25 February244 September 249
M Iulius Seuerus Philippus II May 244 September 249
Sibannacus 2449 2449
Sponsianus 2449 2449
Vranius Antoninus I (East) 248 253
Ti Claudius Marinus Pacatianus (Danube) June 248 summer 248
M Fuluius Rufus Iotapianus (Asia Minor) summer 248 summer 248
C Messius Quintus Traianus Decius September 249 June 251
L? Priscus 250 250
Iulius Valens Licinianus 250 250
Q Herennius Etruscus Messius Decius May 251 June 251
C Vibius Afinius Trebonianus Gallus June 251 August 253
C Valens Hostilianus Messius Quintus July 251 November 251
C Vibius Afinius Gallus Vendumnianus Volusianus November 251 August 253
M Aemilius Aemilianus July 253 October 253
P Licinius Valerianus 22 October 253 June 260
P Licinius Egnatius Gallienus August 253 22 March 268
L Iulius Aurelius Sulpicius Vranius Antoninus II 253 254
Ingenuus (Danube) 258 259?
P Licinius Cornelius Saloninus Valerianus (Cologne) 259 259
M Cassianus Latinius Postumus (Gaul) late 259 late 268
T Fuluius Macrianus September 260 mid 261
T Fuluius Quietus September 260 November 261
Mareodes (Antioch) 260? 260?
Odenathus (Palmyra) 260 267
Regalianus (Danube) 260 260
Valens 260 260
Piso 261 261
Ballista 261 261
Mussius Aemilianus 261 261
Aureolus 267 268
M Aurelius Valerius Claudius II Gothicus 22 March 268 January 270
C Domitianus II (Gaul?) 268? 268?
Vlpius Cornelius Laelianus (Gaul) summer 268 late 268
M Aurelius Marius (Gaul) late 268 mid 269
M Piauonius Victorinus (Gaul) mid 269 early 270
M Aurelius Claudius Quintillus January 270 early 274
L Domitius Aurelianus April 270 April 275
C Pius Esuuius Tetricus I (Gaul) early 270 early 274
Felicissimus 270? 271?
Zenobia* (Palmyra) 271 summer 272
Vaballathus (Athenodoros) 271 summer 272
Septimius 271 272
Vrbanus 271 272
C Pius Tetricus II (Gaul) early 274 early 274
Memor (East) ? ?
Firmus (East) ? ?
<Interregnum [Severina*]> April 275 September 275
M Claudius Tacitus 25 September 275 April 276
M Annius Florianus early April 276 end of June 276
M Aurelius Equitius Probus April or May 276 September 282
Sex Iulianus Saturninus (Egypt) 280 280
Proculus (Gaul) ? ?
Bonosus (Gaul) ? ?
M Aurelius Numerius Carus September 282 August 283
M Aurelius Carinus August 283 1? April 285
M Aurelius Numerius Numerianus August 283 November 284
M Aurelius Iulianus I (Pannonia) late 284 early 285
C Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Iouius 20 November 284 1 May 305
Aelianus (Gaul) 285 286
Amandus (Gaul) 285 285
M Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (1) 1 April 286 1 May 305
M Aurelius Mausaeus Carausius (Britain) late 286 293
Allectus (Britain) 293 296
L Domitius Domitianus Achilleus (Egypt) July 296 spring 297
M Flauius Valerius Constantius I [Chlorus] 1 May 305 25 July 306
C Galerius Valerius Maximianus 1 May 305 May 311
Fl Valerius Seuerus II 25 July 306 April 307
Fl Valerius Constantinus I [Magnus] 25 July 306 22 May 337
M Aurelius Valerius Maxentius 28 October 306 28 October 312
M Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (2) November 306 November 308
C Flauius Valerius Licinianus Licinius 11 November 308 21 September 324
C Galerius Valerius Maximinus II Daia May 309 August 313
M Aurelius Valerius Maximianus Herculius (3) spring 310 spring 310
L Domitius Alexander (North Africa) 311 311
Aurelius Valerius Valens I 314 late 314
M Martinianus summer 324 autumn 324
Calocaerus (Cyprus) 3334 3334
<Interregnum> 22 May 337 9 September 337
Fl Valerius Claudius Constantinus II 9 September 337 spring 340
Fl Valerius Iulius Constans I 9 September 337 18 January 350
Fl Valerius Iulius Constantius II 9 September 337 3 November 361
Fl Iulius Popilius Nepotianus Constantinus early 350 early 350
Fl Magnus Magnentius (Gaul & Britain) 18 January 350 11 August 353
Vetranio (Illyricum) 1 March 350 late 350
Claudius Siluanus 355 355
Fl Claudius Iulianus II February 360 26 June 363
Fl Claudius Iouianus 27 June 363 16 February 364
Fl Valentinianus I 26 February 364 17 November 375
Fl Valens II 28 March 364 9 August 378
Procopius (East) 28 September 365 27 May 366
Marcellus (East) 27 May 366 summer 366
Fl Gratianus I 24 August 367 25 August 383
Fl Valentinianus II 22 November 375 15 May 392
Fl Theodosius I 19 January 379 17 January 395
Magnus Clemens Maximus I (Britain & Gaul) July 383 28 July 388
Fl Victor (Britain & Gaul) mid 387 August 388
Eugenius (Gaul) 22 August 392 6 September 394
Arcadius 19 January 393 1 May 408
Fl Honorius 10 January 395 25 August 423
Gildo (Africa) 397 397
Theodosius II 10 January 402 28 July 450
Marcus I (Britain) 406 January 407
Gratianus II (Britain) January 407 May 407
Fl Claudius Constantinus III (Britain & Gaul) mid 407 September 411
Constans (Britain & Gaul) 408 early 411
Maximus II (Spain) 409 411
Priscus Attalus (1) (Italy) 409 May or June 410
Iouinus (Rhine) 411 413
Sebastianus (Rhine) 412 413
Priscus Attalus (2) (Gaul) 414 415
Fl Constantius III 8 February 421 2 September 421
Iohannes I 25 August 423 October 425
Placidius Valentinianus III 23 October 425 16 March 455
Fl Valerius Marcianus 25 August 450 January or February 457
Fl Anicius Petronius Maximus 17 March 455 31 May 455
Fl Valerius Leo I 7 February 457 3 February 474
M Maecilius Flauius Eparchius Auitus 9 July 455 17 October 456
Iulius Maiorianus 1 April 457 2 August 461
Libius Seuerus III 19 November 461 14 November 465
Procopius Anthemius 12 April 467 11 July 472
Anicius Olybrius April 472 2 November 472
Fl Glycerius 5 March 473 24 June 474
Leo II 18 November 473 10 November 474
Zeno 9 February 474 9 April 491
Fl Iulius Nepos (Dalmatia only from 28August 475) 24 June 474 9 May 480
Basiliscus (Constantinople) January 475 August 476
Marcus II early 476 August 476
Romulus Augustus [Augustulus] October 475 August 476
Leontius 19 July 484 488
Anastasius I (Byzantine Empire) 11 April 491 1 July 518

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